Saturday, January 16, 2010

Spanish CSET subtest 1

 Spanish Subtest I: General Linguistics; Linguistics of the Target Language (40MC total &3 short response)

This site is a good starting point if you need to study linguistics.

I began to make my own glossary. This is by no means everything you need to know but I did find a lot of these terms on the test.

Linguistics: the study of human language. Webster's dictionary: "the study of human speech in its various aspects (as the units, nature, structure and modification of language or languages or a language including esp. such factors as phonetics, phonology, morphology, accent, syntax, semantics, general or philosophical grammar and the relation between writing and speech)."

Linguist: someone who engages in this study.

The components of grammar

Phonetics: the articulation and perception of speech sound
Phonology: the pattering of speech sound
Morphology: word-formation
Syntax: sentence formation
Semantics: the interpretation of words and sentences
Pragmatics: how to use things with words

Morphology: the study of word structure

Morpheme: the smallest linguistic unit that has semantic meaning; the minimal unit of language which carries meaning

Morph: the phonetic realization of a morpheme.

Allomorph: one of two or more complementary morphs which manifest a morpheme.

Free morpheme: a grammatical unit that can occur by itself. However, other morphemes such as affixes can be attached to it.

    Example: The morpheme dog

Bound morpheme: a grammatical unit that never occurs by itself, but is always attached to some other morpheme.

    Example: plural morpheme -s in dogs

Affix: a bound morpheme that is joined before, after, or within a root or stem.

Inflection process: the process by which affixes combine with roots with the aim of indicating basic grammatical categories, for instance, tense, plurality (dog-s, call-ed: 's' indicates plurality while 'ed' indicates the tense of the verb and are inflectional suffixes).

Derivational morphology (e.g., rules for forming derived and compound words).

Changes the meaning of words by applying derivations, the combination of a word stem with a morpheme, which forms a new word, which is often of a different class. For example, develop becomes development, developmental or redevelop.

Derivational morphology focuses on ways in which morphemes can be combined in order to form new stems or words. For example, the root noun child can combine with the adjectival morpheme -ish to become a new adjective, childish. The addition of derivational morphemes does not always change the syntactic category of a word; for example, the adjective happy can combine with the prefix un- to form a new adjective, unhappy. Understanding the principles of a language's derivational morphology aids in understanding how roots and morphemes such as these can combine to form new words.

Derivational morphemes: change the part of speech or the basic meaning of the word (-ment added to 'judgement')

Derivation Process: process by which affixes combine with roots to create new words.

Speech Act theory:
When we speak, our words do not have meaning in and of themselves. They are very much affected by the situation, the speaker and the listener. Thus words alone do not have a simple fixed meaning.

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